Things Lydia McGrew wanted to say somewhere but couldn’t fit in anywhere else. Friday, June 16, Placement, order, and dating of Pauline epistles I recently wrote up my own opinions though not uninformed opinions on the placement of Paul’s epistles within Acts and on their approximate calendar dates. I wrote it up for someone whom I am meeting to discuss the topic, but after doing all that work, I figured it would make a good blog post. I ask readers to excuse the varying amounts of argument represented here and the terse style. Each entry begins by placing the book in relation to Acts, which is usually much easier to do than placing it in relation to the calendar. Next I make educated guesses about calendar dating. The order is chronological, according to my own present views. Readers who are into New Testament issues will notice that I don’t try to write treatises on the much-discussed issues of the destination and placement of Galatians and the authorship of Hebrews, but I do give my own present opinions. Until I went back to Hemer this last time, I had forgotten about the earthquake in the Lycus Valley and its possible impact upon the dating of Colossians, Ephesians, and Philemon.
Troxel The phrase “the works of the Law” appears first in chapter 3, as Paul elaborates on the statement of 3: The phrase, “Those who are under the Law” refers to Jews, while the clause “whatever the Law says” casts an eye back to the series of quotations from scripture Paul has just given in vv. That series begins with one of those interjected questions: Are we [Jews] any better off?
There is no one who is righteous, not even one; there is no one who has understanding, there is no one who seeks God. All have turned aside, together they have become worthless; there is no one who shows kindness, there is not even one.
Pauline Letters Chronological Order Paul J. Bucknell Purpose. The Apostle Paul wrote numerous letters (or epistles) and makes it difficult to keep them straight. We have a chart that presents each of them in their own grouping so one can better understand the dating .
In relation with the feeding of the Lk9: Because those are sayings “logias” only, I do not see here any relation with GMatthew, more so owing to “compiled” rather than “composed” , as shown in most copies of Eusebius’ work HC. Furthermore, the fact that “Matthew” was attributed a collection of sayings therefore emphasizing Jesus as a sage is supported by the gospel of Thomas: Matthew said to him, “You are like a wise philosopher.
Irenaeus, ‘Against Heresies’, V, And he says in addition, “Now these things are credible to believers. By this Son , he says, was emitted the Word,
The 13 “Pauline” epistles
Troxel Before leaving 1 Thessalonians, I want to deal briefly with the question of how scholars date the Pauline epistles. This letter is considered the earliest Pauline epistle we possess, and in fact the earliest piece of Christian literature that has survived. You need to be at least somewhat aware of how that conclusion is reached. How does one go about dating this letter and all the Pauline letters?
Dating the Pauline Epistles © Ronald L. Troxel. Before leaving 1 Thessalonians, I want to deal briefly with the question of how scholars date the Pauline epistles. This letter is considered the earliest Pauline epistle we possess, and in fact the earliest piece of Christian literature that has survived.
Blomberg, The Case for Christ 26 Because of the lack of original texts, it has been very difficult to date the canonical gospels as to when they were written or even when they first emerge in the historical record, as these two dates may differ. According to this scholarship, the gospels must have been written after the devastation because they refer to it.
However, conservative believers maintain the early dates and assert that the destruction of the temple and Judea mentioned in the gospels constitutes “prophecy,” demonstrating Jesus’s divine powers. The substantiation for this early, first-century range of dates, both conservative and liberal, is internal only, as there is no external evidence, whether historical or archaeological, for the existence of any gospels at that time.
Nevertheless, fundamentalist Christian apologists such as Norman Geisler make misleading assertions such as that “many of the original manuscripts date from within twenty to thirty years of the events in Jesus’ life, that is, from contemporaries and eyewitnesses. Moreover, even the latest of the accepted gospel dates are not based on evidence from the historical, literary or archaeological record, and over the centuries a more “radical” school of thought has placed the creation or emergence of the canonical gospels as we have them at a much later date, more towards the end of the second century.
Anonymous and Pseudonymous Authors Based on the dating difficulties and other problems, many scholars and researchers over the centuries have become convinced that the gospels were not written by the people to whom they are ascribed. As can be concluded from the remarks of fundamentalist Christian and biblical scholar Dr. Blomberg, the gospels are in fact anonymous. In reality, it was a fairly common practice in ancient times to attribute falsely to one person a book or letter written by another or others, and this pseudepigraphical attribution of authorship was especially rampant with religious texts, occurring with several Old Testament figures and early Church fathers, for example, as well as with known forgeries in the name of characters from the New Testament such as the Gospel of Peter, et al.
In actuality, there were gospels composed in the name of every apostle, including Thomas, Bartholomew and Phillip, but these texts are considered “spurious” and unauthorized. Although it would be logical for all those directly involved with Jesus to have recorded their own memoirs, is it not odd that there are so many bogus manuscripts? What does it all mean? If Peter didn’t write the Gospel of Peter, then who did?
A Scriptural Chronology of Paul’s Epistles
Recommended Books for the Study of Early Christian Writings Information on 1 Thessalonians The epistle to the Thessalonians is certainly one of the most ancient Christian documents in existence. It is typically dated c. It is universally assented to be an authentic letter of Paul. Thessalonica was the capital of the province of Macedonia and a large seaport.
Information on 1 Timothy. 1 Timothy is one of the three epistles known collectively as the pastorals (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus). They were not included in Marcion’s canon of ten epistles .
These are often called the pre-prison Epistles. During this time, the Apostle Paul was sent out by the Holy Ghost onto three apostolic journeys. They are as follows: After the two year period at Rome, Paul was released and journeyed far and wide re-visiting places where he had preached before, even venturing into Spain and possibly northern Europe. During these travels he writes the Epistles of 1st Timothy and Titus: Now as he ventures about he teaches the same thing to all the gentiles. What we would say is that Paul did not change the Sound Doctrine he was entrusted with and was faithful to the end of his life having finished his course, keeping the faith, and fighting the good fight of faith.
Chapter four of this Epistle records the tender heart-felt last testament of the Apostle of Grace facing his release from this body of flesh, wanting to encourage his son in the faith one more time before he is executed by the hands of the Roman government.
The Apocrypha and the Church Name and notion Etymologically, the derivation of Apocrypha is very simple, being from the Greek apokryphos, hidden, and corresponding to the neuter plural of the adjective. The use of the singular, “Apocryphon”, is both legitimate and convenient, when referring to a single work. When we would attempt to seize the literary sense attaching to the word, the task is not so easy.
It has been employed in various ways by early patristic writers, who have sometimes entirely lost sight of the etymology.
Information on 1 Thessalonians. The epistle to the Thessalonians is certainly one of the most ancient Christian documents in existence. It is typically dated c. 50/51 CE.
Philemon These seven letters are quoted or mentioned by the earliest of sources, and are included in every ancient canon, including that of Marcion c. Hilgenfeld and H. Holtzmann instead accepted the seven letters listed above, adding Philemon, 1 Thessalonians, and Philippians. Few scholars have argued against this list of seven epistles, which all share common themes, emphasis, vocabulary and style.
They also exhibit a uniformity of doctrine concerning the Mosaic Law , Christ, and faith. Colossians[ edit ] Although Colossians is witnessed by the same historical sources as the undisputed texts, Pauline authorship of Colossians has found some critics. It was originally doubted by F. Baur, though others working from his general thesis, such as H. Holtzmann, argued that an original brief Pauline text experienced many interpolations by a later editor.
Dating the Bible
December 13, A Bodmer Papyrus not 3 Cor 3 Corinthians, which is an apocryphal correspondence between the Corinthians and Paul, is a text that many scholars date to the end of the second century e. The argument hinges upon an apparent lack of specificity with regards to the heretics mentioned: So for example, these scholars also date the Pastoral Epistles late, early second century, and therefore, 3 Cor must be even later.
Amazingly, the question of an actual historical Jesus rarely confronts the religious believer. The power of faith has so forcefully driven the minds of most believers, and even apologetic scholars, that the question of reliable evidence gets obscured by tradition, religious subterfuge, and outrageous claims.
Are any inspired books missing? Are any books included that should not be in our Bible? These are obviously vital questions for the people of God to determine. The word comes from the Greek kanwn and most likely from the Hebrew qaneh and Akkadian, qanu. Literally, it means a a straight rod or bar; b a measuring rule as a ruler used by masons and carpenters; then c a rule or standard for testing straightness.
Historically, the word was first used by the church of those doctrines that were accepted as the rule of faith and practice. The term came to be applied to the decisions of the Councils as rules by which to live. All these employ the word in the metaphorical sense of a rule, norm, or standard. Jews and conservative Christians alike have recognized the thirty-nine books of the Old Testament as inspired.
Evangelical Protestants have recognized the twenty-seven books of the New Testament as inspired. Roman Catholics have a total of eighty books because they recognize the Apocrypha as semicanonical. If we believe that God exists as an almighty God, then revelation and inspiration are clearly possible.
When Were the Gospels Written?
Udo Schnelle, translated by M. Fortress Press, , pp. They were not included in Marcion’s canon of ten epistles assembled c. Against Wallace, there is no certain quotation of these epistles before Irenaeus c. Norman Perrin summarises four reasons that have lead critical scholarship to regard the pastorals as inauthentic The New Testament:
The Epistles are generally divided into the Pauline Epistles and the Non-Pauline (General) Epistles. Paul’s epistles fall into two categories: nine epistles written to churches (Romans to 2 Thessalonians) and four pastoral and personal epistles (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus and Philemon).
In analyzing why certain critical scholars may be inclined to favor later dates, the first reason that would come to mind is, as a liberal biblical critic, one may be trying to find a way to shake the historicity and reliability of Gospel claims. The reason why they would seek to separate the writing of the documents to the life of the original disciples has to do with the concept of the Gospels containing mythology. Some of these scholars enter the dating arena with the notion that the gospels contain a degree of mythology miracles, virgin birth, resurrection, etc , and because of this they date the books with an innate bias for later dates.
Sadly, some scholars build from this bias when the reverse should be attempted. This then allows them to analyze certain scriptural claims in light of mystified information, and thus oversee certain crucial Christian and biblical statements. With these two opposing views, and the importance not only behind the dates, but the ramifications dating itself brings to their opposing arguments, we can understand how important it is to explore the possibility of dating the Gospels.
Philemon These seven letters are quoted or mentioned by the earliest of sources, and are included in every ancient canon, including that of Marcion c. Hilgenfeld and H. Holtzmann instead accepted the seven letters listed above, adding Philemon, 1 Thessalonians, and Philippians.
“Works of the Law” in Romans © Ronald L. Troxel. The phrase “the works of the Law” appears first in chapter 3, as Paul elaborates on the statement of that both Jews and Gentiles have come under the power of sin: 19 Now we know that whatever the Law says, it speaks to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be silenced, and the whole world may be held accountable to God.
Does Paul in 1 Timothy 2 prohibit women from preaching at the pulpit? In answering this question, it is sometimes stated that Paul was not the author of the pastorals, which includes 1 Timothy, and as a result, the difficult statements therein have little or no binding authority. In the issue of authorship, Christians have split into opposing camps, sometimes declaring opponents to be uncommitted to the authority of Scripture.
Indeed, there is a camp of scholars who do not believe that Paul wrote the Pastoral Epistles. For the other camp Paul is certainly the author. What are the arguments for and against Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles? Although Paul is identified to be the author at the beginning of each of the Pastoral Epistles, some scholars look at other pieces of evidence from throughout the letters as a whole and determine that they are not genuinely from Paul but from someone else.
Others find a way to explain how Paul is in fact the author of these epistles in keeping with the Pauline attribution at their beginnings. We will explore the various arguments against Pauline authorship and allow arguments in favor of Pauline authorship to interact with them. However, in the end we must ask ourselves what we can make of the situation by asking ourselves if the question of authorship is as important as we have made it out to be.